What is Terraform? Why to learn to become Linux SRE and Cloud SME

Mr LinuxSME wants to become TerraForm SME

Terraform is a great and free to use Infrastructure as Code based tool. It is open source. You can deploy  Cloud resources remotely

  • Cross-platform
    Supported by most of the cloud providers
    Text-based orchestration tool so you can write easily on any platform.
How much does it cost me to learn Terraform?

Nothing. The tool is free and most of the Cloud providers offer a free tier so nothing to pay.

What is the benchmark to demonstrate our TerraForm Knowledge?
  • TerraForm associate certificate. We will learn how to earn TerraForm certificate in upcoming lessons
  • Real-time projects or sample projects.

Back to How to become TerraForm SME  series

Open Media Vault  NAS installation on the laptop T450

Open Media Vault NAS is one free to install NAS product. Active development and can install any old laptop/desktop along with decent server hardware. We going to install version 5 for our DIY NAS on a Laptop  project 

Hardware auto-detected by T450 laptop by OMV so no hurdles about drivers. Installation guides are many available so I don’t want to reinvent the wheel. Simple and straightforward automated install.

Post-install, it will present an IP address to access web-based GUI.

1. The first step is to change to static IP from the Web interface.

2. Change the default login password from openmediavault to secure one.

3. If you want additional functions like Iscsi server, LVM, Docker etc, then you need to install them as plugins using OVM-extras.

Detailed instal steps  mentioned here

4. the First step is to prepare disks.Left menu -> select disks. It will display all detected disks. Slect desired disk and click wipe.

5. Next go to the file system menu and create a file system on an earlier wiped disk. once filesystem is created, select on “mount” button.

6. Next is creating shared folders,  these are folders used for sharing via SAMAB or NFS. Select the shared folders menu and create a shared folder.

7. Now go to the services menu, select desired service and enable it. Next click on the shares tab and select the earlier created shared folder.

Details video tutorials are available on youtube or google.

Storage planning for DIY home NAS with Laptop project

In our DIY NAS with Laptop series, the next step is storage planning.

T450 laptop comes with USB 3.0 ports so I want to take advantage of USB to SSD adapters to eliminate mechanical disks.

DIY NAS storage topology

500 GB for NAS from SSD and 500 GB for NFS/SAMBA for VMS from other SSD.

one replica to AMAZON S3 deep archive and one copy to a local USB disk.

DIY NAS storage layout
Laptop NAS storage layout

Hardware used :

Crucial BX500 480GB 3D NAND SATA 6.35 cm

PiBOX India – USB 3.0 to 2.5″ SATA III Hard Drive Adapter 0.5 M

SanDisk 500 GB Extreme Portable SSD 1050MB/s R

best Linux compatible USB 3 1 Gbps Ethernet LAN card for Lapotp

Now, 1Gbps is a common LAN for even for Home use. But old laptops lack of 1Gbps NICs. If you want to upgrade to 1 Gbps or add a new  LAN card with a USB interface for Linux, same again old issue lack of drivers!.

Following 1Gbps USB LAN card works out of the box on Ubuntu or Debian 10 ( I tested on them so mostly it works on all recent kernels)

AmazonBasics USB 3.0 to 10/100/1000 Gigabit Ethernet LAN Adapter

AX88179 based. Drivers are Kernel included.

So Enjoy! your 1Gbps.


1 Gbps home Lan topology for open media vault NAS on Laptop

In our  DIY NAS using laptop T450 series let’s check on the proposed Home Lan NAS topology.

Our motive is to build a 1 Gbps NAS without spending on Fancy NAS stuff. for 4-5 users for office work, Video streaming not 4k VIdeo editing :).   I will use my existing ISP home broadband 1 Gbps router with 4 built-in ports.

Win 10/Linux Clients/DLNA like smart TV/VLC ——- Ruter —— NAS on T450 laptop. All devices are equipped with 1 Gbps except TV.

Which ethernet cable is required for 1Gbps LAN?

Preferable LAN cable for 1 Gbps network is 6 but 5e also you can use but NOT 5.

Router Hardware Model:  HG8145V5

NAS server: Lenevo T450 with 15 GB RAM ( even 4GB also works fine for pure NAS use without add ons like docker etc. )

The next Task is about storage planning for home NAS using laptop T450

How to Convert Old laptop like T450 to perfect NAS for Home Network

In this T450 laptop NAS conversion series, I will explain in detail end to end process of building 1 GBps of NAS without wasting money on Fancy NAS products.

You may ask why we can’t use VM by Vmware workstation or Virtualbox. Here is the reason why never use VM managed Type 2 hypervisor for NAS purposes. 

After the grand failure of the NAS build using a desktop hypervisor, now I turned towards my old but very reliable Lenovo  T450 laptop which is with 16 GB and 256 GB HDD.   I have no clue about Hardware compatibility with Open Media Vault. It’s based on Debian Linux 10 web-based GUI.  LAN cards must detect and other displays are not required.

Here is the first step of our DIY NAS using laptop T450.

Step 1: Network topology for Home NAS using a laptop

Step 2: Storage layout for Home NAS using the laptop

Step 3: Open Media Vault  NAS on the laptop T450

T450 Laptop as NAS server
T450 Laptop as NAS server

End Result :

AJA T450 NAS speed check
T450 laptop NAS box speed check

We achieved our goal it by saturating the 1 Gbps line in the above benchmark

Never use VM as NAS server even for Home use, my failed NAS story

We should not use Virtual Machine from desktop hypervisors like VMWare workstation, Virtualbox etc? Here is my failed NAS build using VM at the last min.,

I want to migrate to NAS from the external back drive for better organization other features. I have a large number of ISO images, screen recording etc stuff. I don’t requirement of 4k video and security camera footage storage so don’t want to waste money on fancy NAS hardware.

FreeNAS, I want to install it on VM  running on Vmware Workstation Pro. But memory requirement is high for FreeNAS. So moved to Open Media Volut. 

Everything went fine and during the testing performance, realized something which I ignored earlier. Tried AJA benchmark on one SAMBA mount and  500 Mbps ( 1/2 of Gigabit LAN) is speed. I am clueless why it is unable to saturate Gigabit Lan bandwidth.

Not only that CPU spike is high during data transfer. Suspected SAMBA and tried to configure some old tweaks but no use.

Next tried Linux client with NFS and Rsync – it was much worse like 40 MB. ( Remember 1 GBps = 125 MB ) 90 MB at least I am expecting.

Then suspected about cables and changed to cat 6 but no use.  then I tried laptop to Desktop and bingo network speed at 106 MB on both read and write. This clarifies to me that my network infra is fine.  I am using the same ISP-provided router with built-in 4 ports.

Then I changed VMxNET3 in VMware workstation for Windows Test box but no use. At last, the issue is with NIC.  Due to some reason VMware simulated network cards ( virtual vnics) unable to perform.

I don’t have access to type 1 like ESX etc. so installed OpenMediavault on T450 ( I will post the process soon).

AJA  T450  NAS speed check
T450 laptop NAS box speed check

So Moral of the story – Desktop Hypervisor is not suitable for network loads related to NAS even for Home use.


How to use openmediavault nas share when office vpn connected

Recently as part of  DIY NAS, converted my T450 laptop as openmediavault NAS box.I will post my experience in another series.

Now everything is fine as expected as long as  I connected to my local LAN. I want to use my work laptop with productive tools like OneNote etc to use my NAS box as a backup. The issue is I need to use the Cisco VPN client to connect the office network.

My Cisco VPN won’t allow local LAN connections. So I can’t use my SAMBA share from openmediavault NAS. As a workaround, I can use VM with shared folders from the office laptop to backup it up. but I don’t want to waste 1 CPU for that VM.

Win 10 got an “available always offline”  feature which allows even local LAN not available, it can store changes on local disk and when NAS is online it will sync.

I got the solution, I mapped the network drive of SAMA mount and enabled “always available offline” features. so Whenever I am on Cisco VPN – Win 10 saves changes to the local disk and once I am out of VPN, it will sync to NAS.

In this way, we can use the local network NAS even behind the CICSO VPN network.



How to check local LAN speed and bandwidth or intranet

You have so many tools for measuring net speed but what about your local LAN speed check? How you can measure the bandwidth of your local LAN or Intranet? How do you know your home is Gbps and all network equipment performing?

Here is the free and quick solution to local network or intranet speed check. Program named called iperf tool to measure local LANspeed


Two windows/Linux systems are connected and reachable to each other via ethernet.

Step 1:

start program in server mode  using parameter -s

Step 2:

on other PC  execute the program as a passing parameter -c and server ip

Speediest your home local lan
How to measure local LAN bandwidth

Why I am using this?

I am building one home NAS project using old hardware and SSDS available at home. To health check my home LAN  and its speed, I want to try a simple solution. This utility is perfect to speed test home LAN or intranet.



How to clear Cloud Operations 2021 Associate [1Z0-1067-21] for free in 10 days

Cloud Operations 2021 Associate [1Z0-1067-21] can be cleared within 10 days without any cost.

Yes, you can do it. Here there is no magic or shortcut. Up to 31st December, you can write Oracle certifications for free. The good part is learning path videos are also published for free to access.


Visit the above URL and select your desired certification learning and appear for OCI certification.

Now let’s talk about Cloud Operations 2021 Associate [1Z0-1067-21]. you can clear it in 10 days,. condition is 4 hrs per day you need to practice. you need to understand learning path videos and lab ( 10hrs total)

I checked it, I would say satisfying videos are there for OCI beginners covering most of all the OCI topics.

I would ask if you don’t want to appear  for certification, you can learn a lot about OCI

by viewing those videos.